Reduction Mammoplasty Reduction mammoplasty reduces the size of the breasts. People call a reduction mammoplasty a breast reduction. Breast pain, rashes under the breasts, neck pain, shoulder pain, back pain and shoulder grooving from bra straps are indications that a patient may need a breast reduction. Reduction mammoplasty techniques maintain the blood and nerve supply to the nipples while excising excess breast tissue. Scars from reduction mammoplasty are either in the shape of a lollipop (with a circular scar around the areola and another vertical scar below the areola) or an anchor (with a circular scar around the areola, vertical scar below the areola and another scar at the lower breast fold). While some insurance companies cover the cost of reduction mammoplasty, they often base their decision on the amount of breast tissue removed from each breast at the time of reduction mammoplasty.
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments. They may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients or methods of treatment - known as specialist medical practitioners - or assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families and communities - known as general practitioners. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines underlying diseases and their treatment — the science of medicine — and also a decent competence in its applied practice — the art or craft of medicine.
Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world, including a wide variety of qualifications and degrees, but there are some common elements. For example, the ethics of medicine require that physicians show consideration, compassion and benevolence for their patients.
Around the world, the combined term "Physician and Surgeon" is used to describe either a general practitioner or any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty. This usage still shows the original meaning of physician and preserves the old difference between a physician, as a practitioner of physic, and a surgeon. The term may be used by state medical boards in the United States of America, and by equivalent bodies in provinces of Canada, to describe any medical practitioner.